Category Archives: Review

Coalesced effect of cavitation and silt erosion in hydro turbines—A review


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Pannkaj P. Gohil and R.P. Saini – Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, May 2014

Abstract

Cavitation is a phenomenon which manifests itself in the pitting of the metallic surfaces of turbine parts because of the formation of cavities. However, silt erosion is caused by the dynamic action of silt flowing along with water, impacting against a solid surface. The erosion and abrasive wear not only reduce the efficiency and the life of the turbine but also cause problems in operation and maintenance, which ultimately lead to economic losses. Researchers have studied that the cavitation in silt flow is more serious than in pure water. However, the coalesced effect of silt erosion and cavitation is found to be more pronounced than their individual effects.

In the present paper the studies in this field carried out by various investigators are discussed and presented. Parameters related to the combined effect of cavitation and silt erosion which are responsible for efficiency loss due to erosion as investigated by researchers have also been discussed.

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Flow–structure–seabed interactions in coastal and marine environments


B. Mutlu Sumer – Journal of Hydraulic Research,  March 2013

Abstract

Flow–structure–seabed interaction in coastal and marine environments is a rapidly growing area of research and applications. In this vision paper, this area is discussed with a view of identifying its state of the art and current research challenges. The discussion draws attention to key issues related to structures such as marine pipelines, offshore windfarms, and multiuse offshore platforms. Tsunamis, which received considerable attention after two recent extreme events (2004 Indonesia tsunami and 2011 Japan tsunami) are also included in the discussion. Marine hydro-geomechanics is highlighted, among other areas, as an emerging branch of Marine Civil Engineering. Predictions of the field development for the forthcoming years are also briefly outlined.

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A review on flow energy harvesters based on flapping foils


Qing Xiao and Qiang Zhu – Journal of Fluids and Structures, April 2014

Abstract

This article presents an overview of the state of the art investigations on the recently developed oscillating foil energy converters. A summary of available knowledge and up-to-date progress in the application of such bio-inspired systems for renewable energy devices is provided. Starting from concepts and achieved results in three distinguishable categories, various parametric studies are reviewed, along with an in-depth discussion on the potential device performance enhancement via flow control mechanisms. Finally, potential future research directions are discussed.

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Off-shore wind farm development: Present status and challenges


Rehana Perveen, Nand Kishor, and Soumya R. Mohanty – Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, January 2014

Abstract

Offshore wind farm (OWF) is an emerging technology in the wind energy conversion system. These wind resources are abundant, stronger, and are more consistent in terms of their availability than land-based wind resources. As a matter of fact significantly higher energy production is achieved due to larger wind turbine ratings and stronger wind profiles. Continue reading

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On the park effect in arrays of oscillating wave energy converters


A. Babarit – Renewable Energy, October, 2013

Abstract

This paper aims to provide guidelines for designing the layout of arrays of oscillating Wave Energy Converters (WECs) based on a review of the literature of wave interactions and park effect in WEC arrays that has been published over the past 30 years.

First, the fundamentals of wave energy absorption by oscillating bodies are summarised, and the principal differences between the park effect in arrays of wave energy converters and wind turbines are highlighted. Then, the numerical approaches commonly used to deal with WEC arrays are outlined briefly and their limitations are discussed. It is argued that, at present, only Boundary Element Methods (BEM) are capable of the appropriate analysis. Finally, previous work on wave interactions and park effect in WEC arrays is reviewed. Similar trends are found in these studies, which allow conclusions to be drawn regarding the significance of the park effect as a function of the number of WECs in the array and their spacing. Based on these conclusions, the following tentative guidelines are proposed:

For small arrays of conventional devices (fewer than 10 devices of typical dimension 10–20 m) with usual layouts (regular or shifted grids with separating distance of order 100–200 m), the park effect appears to be negligible. For larger arrays (more than 10 devices), a negative park effect seems to be increasingly important with increasing number of rows (the lines of WECs perpendicular to the incident wave direction). Therefore, the number of rows should remain as small as possible, with a separating distance as large as possible. For arrays of non-conventional WECs (WECs of typical dimensions much larger than 10–20 m), no information has been found. However, trends similar to the previous cases could be expected, provided that aspect ratios are maintained.

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