Grid Connected Three-Level Converters


Remya Krishna – Uppsala University, Doctoral Dissertation, March 2014

Abstract

This thesis presents an electrical system analysis of a wave energy converter (WEC) for the objective of grid connection. To transfer the enormous amount of power from waves to the load centers, efficient power electronic systems are essential. This thesis includes the modeling of a buoy–translator dynamics and the modeling of a linear permanent magnet generator along with simulation and experimental validation. Diode bridge rectifiers are considered for rectification to avoid the complex linear generator control at the input side. To reduce the size and the cost of energy storage elements, DC voltage regulation is done using a DC/DC converter. To achieve smooth and high power, many WECs need to be connected to a common DC link. A neutral point clamped inverter is considered for the DC/AC conversion due to its advantages over conventional topologies. Various pulse width modulation schemes are tested for the inverter to choose the optimum PWM method. The harmonics in the inverter output voltage is derived numerically and compared with simulation and experiment to understand the effect of deadtime in the inverter operation. Depending on the load current drawn from the inverter, the voltages in the two input capacitors of a three-level neutral point clamped inverter deviates from equilibrium unless the neutral point is grounded. To avoid this voltage imbalance as well as to regulate the DC link voltage a dual output boost converter with pulse delay control is proposed. The modeling, simulation
and experiments show an improvement in the compensation voltage using pulse delay control compared to the previously proposed methods in the literature. The synchronous current control and the grid connection of the three-level converter have been accomplished in the laboratory. Finally, the three-level power converter system has been tested with a linear permanent magnet generator at Lysekil to analyze the controller requirements.

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